HI! DISK BASED 16K EXPANSION REQCHED 4 i / > '#«- Ct commodore v COMPUTER VICWRTTER USER GUIDE VIC3305- diskette VIC3306- cassette ft commodore COMPUTER Commodore Business Machines, Inc. 1200 Wilson Drive • West Chester, PA 19380 Commodore Business Machines, Limited 3370 Pharmacy Avenue • Agincourt, Ontario, M1W 2K4 VICWRITER USER GUIDE This manual was prepared on a COMMODORE 8000 series computer system using a word processor. The files were then electronically transmitted into a phototypesetter and typeset by RANDALL TYPOGRAPHIC LTD, London W4 without compositor intervention. The manual was printed and bound by CARTER LITHO, Slough Special thanks to Gail Wellington, Marilyn Rutley and Delia Phillips who helped with the preparation of this manual. VICFILE USER GUIDE COMMENTS AND ERRATA REQUEST TO THE READER To the best of our knowledge, this manual is technically and typographically correct at the time of going to print. However, no matter how fine we make the sieve for catching errors, sometimes a few slip through. If you notice any mistakes, we would be grateful if you would notify us of them. Comments, criticisms and suggestions are also earnestly solicited. Yours sincerely, •iUAjqvv^ Claire E. Dixon Technical Author COMMODORE BUSINESS MACHINES (UK), LTD. 675 Ajax Avenue Trading Estate Slough, Berkshire SL1 4BG ENGLAND VICWRITER USER GUIDE COPYRIGHT— SOFTWARE PRODUCT This software product is copyrighted and all rights are reserved by: LANDSOFT The Courtyard 152-154 Ewell Road Surbiton Surrey The distribution and sale of this product are intended for the original purchaser only. Lawful users of these programs are hereby licensed only to read these programs from the medium into the memory of a computer solely for the purpose of executing the programs. Duplicating for any other purpose, copying, selling or otherwise distributing this product is a violation of the law. COPYRIGHT — MANUAL This manual is copyrighted and all rights are reserved. This document may not, in whole or in part be copied, photocopied, reprinted, translated, reduced to any electronic medium or machine readable form or reproduced in any manner without prior consent in writing from COMMODORE BUSINESS MACHINES, LTD., Software Product Manager. DISCLAIMER Although programs are tested by COMMODORE before release, no claim is made regarding the accuracy of this software. COMMODORE and its distributors cannot assume liability or responsibility for any loss or damage arising from the use of these programs. Programs are sold only on the basis of this understanding. Individual applications should be thoroughly tested before implementation. Should you require installation, maintenance or training, please consult your COMMODORE dealer. TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION ONE -INTRODUCTION 1.1 INTRODUCTION TO VICWRITER 1-1 1 . 2 INTRODUCTION TO THE USER MANUAL 1-1 1.3 AN OVERVIEW OF VICWRITER 1-2 1.3.1 INTRODUCTION 1-2 1.3.2 WHAT IS VICWRITER ? 1-2 1.3.3 HOW TEXT IS STORED 1-2 1.3.4 WHAT CAN VICWRITER DO ? 1-3 1 .3.4. 1 Saving and Retrieving Text 1-3 18.104.22.168 Printing Text 1-3 22.214.171.124 Editing Text 1-3 1.4 EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS 1-3 1.4.1 THE HARDWARE 1-3 1.4.2 THE VICWRITER SOFTWARE 1-4 1.5 PRECAUTIONS 1-5 1.5.1 THE WORKING ENVIRONMENT 1-5 1.5.2 CARE OF DISKETTES 1-5 1.5.3 CARE OF CASSETTES 1-6 1.6 BACKING UP INFORMATION 1-7 1.7 GETTING STARTED 1-7 1.7.1 CONNECTIONS 1-7 1.7.2 TURNING ON THE COMPONENTS 1-8 126.96.36.199 The Hardware 1-8 188.8.131.52 Problems that may Arise 1-10 1.7.3 THE VICWRITER SOFTWARE 1-10 184.108.40.206 Loading from Cassette 1-10 220.127.116.11 Loading from Diskette 1-11 18.104.22.168 Running VICWRITER 1-11 1.7.4 TURNING THE SYSTEM OFF 1-12 VICWRITER USER GUIDE SECTION TWO -LEARNING TO USE VICWRITER 2.1 INTRODUCTION 2-1 2.2 ABOUT THE EXAMPLE 2-1 2.3 GETTING STARTED 2-1 2.3.1 FORMATTING A BLANK DISKETTE 2-2 2.3.2 LOADING VICWRITER 2-4 22.214.171.124 Loading from Cassette 2-4 126.96.36.199 Loading from Disk 2-5 2.3.3 OPERATING VICWRITER 2-5 2.4 CREATING A PAGE OF TEXT 2-6 2.4.1 TYPING THE TEXT 2-7 2.4.2 USING THE FUNCTION KEYS 2-8 2.4.3 CHECKING THE TEXT 2-8 2.4.4 EDITING THE TEXT 2-9 188.8.131.52 Overwriting Text 2-10 184.108.40.206 Inserting Text 2-10 220.127.116.11 Deleting Text 2-11 18.104.22.168 Inserting Lines 2-11 22.214.171.124 Setting a Tab Position 2-11 126.96.36.199 Copying Text 2-12 188.8.131.52 Ending the Editing 2-13 2.5 PRINTING THE TEXT 2-13 2.6 SAVING THE TEXT 2-14 2.6.1 SAVING ON CASSETTE 2-14 2.6.2 SAVING ON DISKETTE 2-15 2.7 CLEARING THE EDIT BUFFER 2-15 2.8 LOADING THE TEXT 2-16 2.8.1 LOADING TEXT FROM CASSETTE 2-16 2.8.2 LOADING TEXT FROM DISKETTE 2-17 2.9 VIEWING THE TEXT 2-17 2.9.1 DELETING LINES OF TEXT 2-18 2.10 ENDING THE SESSION 2-18 2.11 CONCLUSION 2-19 TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION THREE -THE OPERATING SECTION 3 . 1 INTRODUCTION TO OPERATING SECTION 3-1 3.1.1 KEYBOARD MODE (O or I) 3-1 3.1.2 SCAN/EDIT MODE (S) 3-3 3.1.3 PRIMARY MODE (P) 3-4 3.1.4 USING THE VICWRITER OPTIONS 3-4 3.2 CREATING TEXT 3-5 3.2. 1 TYPING A PAGE OF TEXT 3-6 3.2.2 COMMANDS AVAILABLE KEYBOARD MODE. . . .3-7 184.108.40.206 Select Sub-Mode 3-7 220.127.116.11 Set a Tab Position 3-8 18.104.22.168 Delete a Character 3-8 22.214.171.124 Insert a New Line 3-8 126.96.36.199 Clear a Line 3-8 188.8.131.52 Shift Text to the Right 3-8 184.108.40.206 Shift Text to the Left 3-11 220.127.116.11 End of Text Marker 3-11 18.104.22.168 Return to Scan/Edit Mode (S) 3-11 3.3 EDITING EXISTING TEXT 3-11 3.3.1 COMMANDS AVAILABLE SCAN/EDIT MODE. . .3-12 22.214.171.124 Delete Lines of Text .3-12 126.96.36.199 Delete a Single Line of Text (D) 3-14 188.8.131.52 Copy a Block of Text (C) 3-14 184.108.40.206 Move a Block of Text (M) 3-16 220.127.116.11 Move a Line of Text 3-17 18.104.22.168 View Memory Space (B) 3-17 22.214.171.124 Enter Keyboard Mode (K) 3-18 126.96.36.199 Exit to Primary Mode (X) 3-18 3.3.2 OTHER AVAILABLE COMMANDS .3-18 188.8.131.52 Increasing the Width of the Page 3-18 184.108.40.206 Decreasing the Width of the Page 3-19 3.4 PRIMARY MODE (P) 3-20 3.4. 1 COMMANDS AVAILABLE IN PRIMARY MODE . . 3-21 3.4. 1 . 1 Output Text to Diskette or Cassette (O) 3-21 3.4. 1 .2 Input Text from Diskette or Cassette (I) 3-23 220.127.116.11 Print Text 3-24 VICWRITER USER GUIDE 18.104.22.168 Clear the Edit Buffer 3-24 22.214.171.124 Enter Scan/Edit Mode (S) 3-25 126.96.36.199 End the Program 3-25 3.5 DISKETTE HANDLING COMMANDS 3-25 3.5.1 DISKETTE FORMATTING 3-25 3.5.2 SCRATCHING DISK FILES 3-27 APPENDIX A -KEYBOARD NOTES APPENDIX B- CONDITION CODES GLOSSARY INDEX Figure TABLE OF FIGURES 1-1 THE HARDWARE CONNECTED 1-4 1-2 THE SCREEN AT POWER UP 1-9 1-3 THE FIRST VICWRITER SCREEN 1-12 2-1 THE SCREEN AT POWER UP 2-2 2-2 SCREEN DISPLAY IN SCAN/EDIT MODE 2-6 2-3 THE COMPLETED TEXT 2-9 3-1 THE SCREEN IN KEYBOARD MODE 3-5 3-2 UNALIGNED NUMBERS 3-9 3-3 NUMBERS AFTER ALIGNMENT 3-10 INTRODUCTION SECTION ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 INTRODUCTION TO VICWRITER VICWRITER is a versatile word-processing program which allows you to create, store and modify text. VICWRITER can be used to write reports, standard letters, memos, mailing lists, in fact, any text you like. Text can be saved on cassette tape or diskette so that you can recall it and'print it out again as you require. Changes and updates can be easily made, printed and stored. 1.2 INTRODUCTION TO THE USER MANUAL The VICWRITER manual caters for the first time user with no knowledge of VICWRITER by providing a training section to get you started. It also acts as a handy reference guide for the more experienced user. The manual is divided into three sections as outlined below: SECTION ONE -INTRODUCTION This section describes what VICWRITER is and how it works in broad terms. It also includes a description of the equipment required to run VICWRITER, a list of the precautions to be followed to prevent damage to your diskettes or cassette tapes and instructions on how to turn your system on and off safely and to load VICWRITER. SECTION TWO -LEARNING TO USE VICWRITER This section is designed to train the first time user in the operation of VICWRITER. This is accomplished by means of a simple step-by-step example. SECTION THREE -THE OPERATING SECTION This section describes each command available, how it works and how to use it. Several examples are included. l-i VICWRITER USER GUIDE APPENDIX A -KEYBOARD NOTES This section describes the use of the cursor control and INST/DEL keys. APPENDIX B- CONDITION CODES A list of Condition Codes generated by VICWRITER is given, along with their meaning and the action to be taken when they occur. GLOSSARY This contains a list of terms used in this manual and their definitions. 1.3 AN OVERVIEW OF VICWRITER 1.3.1 INTRODUCTION This section contains an explanation, in very general terms, of how VICWRITER works and what it can do. Detailed descriptions of each function are not given here but can be found in Section 3, the Operating Section of this manual. 1.3.2 WHAT IS VICWRITER ? VICWRITER is a WORDPROCESSOR which allows you to create, store and manipulate text using the VIC 20 computer system. The program provides several commands which you can initiate by simply typing a single letter and any parameters the command requires. These commands enable you to produce letters, reports or any text you like to your own specifications. No knowledge of, or experience with, computers is necessary for you to use VICWRITER effectively and with confidence. 1.3.3 HOW TEXT IS STORED VICWRITER allows you to save any letters or reports you write on cassette tape or diskette so that you can look them up later and make changes to them or print them out. A space is allocated for your text on the diskette or cassette. This is called a file. You give each file a unique name so that you can reference it. 1-2 INTRODUCTION 1.3.4 WHAT CAN VICWRITER DO ? 188.8.131.52 Saving and Retrieving Text VICWRITER allows you to save the text that you create. Storage may be on diskette or cassette. You can recall it for reviewing, to make amendments where necessary or print it out. 184.108.40.206 Printing Text VICWRITER allows you to print out your text permitting you to specify the width of margin you require on the page. You can stop the printing of a page whenever you like. 220.127.116.11 Editing Text VICWRITER provides several commands to allow you to change text until it is in the form you require. The commands include inserting and deleting lines and characters, setting tab positions, copying and moving blocks of text, creating right aligned or left aligned text, clearing all text to the right of the cursor position on a line and checking that you have not run low on memory space. 1.4 EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS 1.4.1 THE HARDWARE The VICWRITER program is designed to be used with a COMMODORE VIC 20 computer system. The elements of this system are as follows: 1. A COMMODORE VIC 20 computer. 2. A COMMODORE VIC 1540 Disk Drive Unit and connecting cable (if you have VICWRITER on diskette). 3. A COMMODORE C2N Cassette Unit (if you have VICWRITER on cassette). 1-3 VICWRITER USER GUIDE 4. A COMMODORE VIC dot matrix printer and connecting cable. 5. A suitable television set or monitor. 6. An 8K or 16K (RAM) VIC memory expansion cartridge. 7. Three three-amp fused mains plugs. The equipment must be connected as shown in Figure 1-1. VIC 20 Computer VIC 1530 Cassette Unit ft VIC Graphic ■rs~i*f 1 < ^^^^^&\ ■®*( i VIC 1540 Single Drive- Floppy Disk Printer FIGURE 1-1 THE HARDWARE CONNECTED 1.4.2 THE VICWRITER SOFTWARE The VICWRITER program is supplied on a diskette or a cassette. Since the diskette cannot be duplicated, two copies are provided. Further copies, if required, may be obtained from your COMMODORE dealer. The VICWRITER cassette contains two copies of the program (one on each side). 1-4 INTRODUCTION 1.5 PRECAUTIONS VICWRITER is easy to use and relatively foolproof. However, some simple precautions must be observed to protect the information in your system from being distorted or destroyed. 1.5.1 THE WORKING ENVIRONMENT In order to gain maximum efficiency and facilitate trouble-free operation, your VIC 20 computer system requires a controlled working environment. Avoid excessive heat, smoke or dust. What is comfortable for you is also satisfactory for the computer. A well regulated power supply is essential as any sudden increase or decrease in power will adversely affect the smooth running of your computer. If you suspect that this is likely to occur, your COMMODORE dealer can analyse the problem and recommend solutions. 1.5.2 CARE OF DISKETTES Diskettes must be handled with care. The following rules must be obeyed in order to protect the information stored on your diskettes: 1 . Keep the diskette in its storage envelope whenever it is not in the drive unit. 2. Store the diskette in a diskette library case or other suitable rigid container. 3. NEVER leave the diskette on top of the drive unit. 4. Keep diskettes away from magnets and magnetic fields such as those generated by transformers, electronic motors, loudspeakers and telephone bells. 5. Do not write on the diskette jacket or label with a lead pencil or ball-point pen. Use a felt-tip pen or fill out the label before attaching it to the diskette. 1-5 VICWR1TER USER GUIDE 6. Do not expose diskettes to excessive heat or sunlight. The recommended temperature range for the storage and use of diskettes is 50 to 120 degrees F. 7. Do not touch the diskette surface or centre hole. Hold the diskette only on the encased area. 8. Do not attempt to clean the diskette. Abrasion will result in the loss of stored information. 9. Do not turn the drive unit on or off whilst the diskette is in place. 10. Gently load the diskette into the drive unit. Rough handling or forcing may damage the centre hole. 11. Do not remove the diskette whilst the program is loading. 12. Never remove the diskette from the drive unit whilst the drive- active indicator light is lit or while the disk unit is whirring. 13. Never bend the diskette. Always keep it flat. 14. Do not attach notes to the diskette with a paper clip or staples. 1.5.3 CARE OF CASSETTES The following rules should be obeyed in order to protect the information stored on your cassettes and care for your cassette unit. 1. Keep the cassette in its box whenever it is not in the cassette unit. 2. Keep the cassettes away from magnets and magnetic fields such as those generated by transformers, electric motors, loudspeakers and telephone bells. 3. Do not expose cassettes to excessive heat or sunlight. The recommended temperature range for storage and use of cassettes is 50 to 120 degrees F. 1-6 INTRODUCTION 4. Do not touch the exposed tape as this will leave moisture and dirt on the tape's surface. 5. Make sure that your cassette unit is at least three feet away from the television set or monitor. 6. Keep the lid of the cassette unit closed when not in use. 7. Periodically de-magnetise the cassette heads using a de-magnetiser. The heads should also be cleaned after every ten hours of playing time using a standard head cleaning cassette. Both these products are available from audio shops. 8. Check that the cassette tape is not loose on the spools before inserting it into the cassette unit. Loose tape can be wound tightly onto the spool by inserting a pencil into one of the two holes in the cassette and turning it in the direction required. 1.6 BACKING UP INFORMATION It is essential that at least two copies are kept of all the information you have stored so that you will not lose this information if a diskette or cassette becomes damaged. The way to do this is to save each page twice on separate diskettes or cassettes. 1.7 GETTING STARTED This section contains a brief explanation of how to turn on the COMMODORE VIC 20 computer system and how to load, and then RUN, VICWRITER. 1.7.1 CONNECTIONS The VIC 20 computer system must be connected as shown in Figure 1-1. Ensure that each component is switched off before connecting it to the mains supply. 1-7 VICWR1TER USER GUIDE 1.7.2 TURNING ON THE COMPONENTS 18.104.22.168 The Hardware The components of the VICWRITER system should be turned on in the following order: 1. The T.V. set or monitor. 2. The COMMODORE VIC 20 computer (first ensuring that the 8K or 16K (RAM) memory expansion cartridge has been inserted, label uppermost, in the expansion port of the VIC). 3. The COMMODORE VIC 1540 disk drive unit (if you are using one). 4. The COMMODORE VIC printer. The expansion port of the VIC is the large slot at the rear of the computer. The ON/OFF switch on the computer is of the rocker type and is located on the right side panel of the computer. Press the projecting half of the switch. After a few seconds, the screen will appear as shown in Figure 1-2. 1-8 INTRODUCTION FIGURE 1-2 THE SCREEN AT POWER UP The BYTES FREE message will read 19967 if you are using a 16K and 1 1775 if using an 8K memory expansion cartridge. The switch on the disk drive unit is also of the rocker type and is situated at the rear of the unit on the right hand side. Press the projecting half of the switch. The two lights on the disk drive, the red drive light and the green power light, will both come on. After a few seconds, the red drive light will go off. The ON/OFF switch on the printer is again of the rocker type and is located on the left hand edge of the machine. Press the projecting half of the switch. The print head will move to the centre of the page and then to its original position. The printer need not be switched on until it is required. 1-9 VICWRITER USER GUIDE 22.214.171.124 Problems that may Arise If any component of the system does not come on, or the screen display is not as shown, or the disk unit lights do not conform to the sequence above, turn the system off. Ensure that the cables and mains supply are properly connected and try again. If the trouble persists consult your COMMODORE VIC dealer. 1.7.3 THE VICWRITER SOFTWARE VICWRITER is a program contained on diskette or cassette. The following two sections describe the method of loading the VICWRITER program. If you have purchased the diskette version proceed to Section 126.96.36.199. 188.8.131.52 Loading from Cassette Open the cassette unit by pressing the STOP/EJECT key. Remove the cassette from its box and with the exposed tape towards you insert it into the cassette unit. Close the lid on the cassette unit. To load VICWRITER type: LOAD' 'VICWRITER' ',1,1 or: LOAD"", 1,1 and then press the RETURN key. VIC will ask you to: PRESS PLAY ON TAPE 1-10 INTRODUCTION Depress the PLA Y button and the tape will begin to move. The following sequence of messages will then appear: OK SEARCHING FOR VICWRITER FOUND VICWRITER LOADING About 5 minutes will elapse. Now proceed to Section 184.108.40.206. 220.127.116.11 Loading from Diskette Remove the diskette from its protective sleeve. Insert the diskette into the drive ensuring that the label on the diskette is facing up and that the write protect tab is to the left. Gently push the diskette into the drive and close the disk drive door by pushing down the tab at the front of the door. To load VICWRITER type: LOAD"*", 8,1 and then press the RETURN key. The red disk drive light will come on for a few seconds and the drive will whir quietly. The following sequence of messages will appear: SEARCHING FOR * LOADING 18.104.22.168 Running VICWRITER When VICWRITER has been loaded, the screen will appear as shown in Figure 1-3. l-n VICWRITER USER GUIDE FIGURE 1-3 THE FIRST VICWRITER SCREEN You are now ready to use the VICWRITER word processor. 1.7.4 TURNING THE SYSTEM OFF If using the disk drive unit, first ensure that the drive unit is not whirring. Push the drive door inwards and then let it rise to the open position. Remove the diskette, place it in its protective sleeve and store it in a safe place. If using the cassette unit press the STOP/EJECT key to eject the cassette. Remove the cassette and return it to its box. Switch off the equipment in the reverse order from that used when turning on, i.e. the printer, the drive unit, the computer and finally the T.V. set or monitor. WARNING DO NOT TURN THE SYSTEM OFF BEFORE REMOVING THE DISKETTE FROM THE DRIVE UNIT 1-12 ; *S*fT. ; ^ TRAINING SECTION '*&r&i 'P^S^^I^: LEARNING TO USE VICWRITER SECTION TWO LEARNING TO USE VICWRITER 2.1 INTRODUCTION The following section is designed to train the first time user in the operation of VICWRITER, by means of a step-by-step example. Not all the options available are incorporated into the example but enough are used to give you an idea of what VICWRITER can achieve. More detailed information about the functions is given in the Operating Section, Section 3. 2.2 ABOUT THE EXAMPLE The example used is very easy to follow. It is important that you work through each stage from start to finish. Don't start in the middle. When you have completed it you should feel confident enough to try your own examples and use more of the functions available. (See the Operating Section.) 2.3 GETTING STARTED The following operations detail how to load VICWRITER from either a cassette tape or a floppy disk. Before loading the program ensure that an 8K or 16K memory expansion cartridge has been inserted into the expansion port of your VIC. The expansion port is the large slot at the back of the VIC. NEVER insert the expansion cartridge with the VIC switched on. The switch to turn off the VIC is to the right of the keyboard and on the side. When the VIC is switched on, the screen appears as in Figure 2-1. 2-1 VICWRITER USER GUIDE FIGURE 2-1 THE SCREEN AT POWER UP The bytes free message will read 19967 if you are using a 16K and 11775 if using an 8K memory expansion cartridge. The flashing blue square is called the cursor, which allows movement around the screen. If you are not familiar with using the cursor control keys and the INST/DEL key, read Appendix A before proceeding with your training. 2.3.1 FORMATTING A BLANK DISKETTE If you are using the diskette version of VICWRITER and you want to save your pages of text on diskette you must first format a diskette. This simply prepares the diskette so that you can save information on it. You will need this blank diskette later on in the training section. WARNING THE FORMATTING OF A DISKETTE THAT ALREADY CONTAINS DATA WILL PERMANENTLY ERASE ALL OF THE DATA ON THE DISKETTE. 2-2 LEARNING TO USE VICWRITER Remove the diskette from its sleeve and insert it into the VIC .1540 disk drive unit. The diskette must be inserted with the label uppermost and the square notch on the diskette to the left. Holding the diskette horizontally, gently push it into the narrow slot at the front of the drive. Once it is in its place flip down the tab on the drive. The tab is in the centre of the slot. To format the diskette type: OPEN15,8,15:PRINT#15,"N0:DISK1,01" and press the RETURN key The red light at the front of the disk drive unit will come on and the drive unit will whir for several seconds. VIC displays the message: READY If the red light does not come on check that the power is switched on (the green light at the front of the drive will be on) and that the disk drive is attached to the back of the VIC 20. Press the RUN/STOP key and re-type the command shown above. After the READY message has appeared type: CLOSE 15 and press the RETURN key. The red light on the drive unit will come on and after about 30 seconds will go out and VIC displays the READY message again. Your diskette is now formatted, i.e. is ready to receive text created by VICWRITER. For further details on disk formatting refer to Section 3.5.1 of the Operating Section. Please note that disk formatting can only be done outside the VICWRITER program. 2-3 VICWRITER USER GUIDE 2.3.2 LOADING VICWRITER 22.214.171.124 Loading from Cassette Remove the cassette tape from its box and insert it into the cassette unit. Make sure that the cassette is rewound to the beginning. If it is not, press the REW key on the cassette unit. After the cassette is rewound press the STOP/EJECT key. To load VICWRITER type: LOAD"",l,l and then press the RETURN key. The screen displays: PRESS PLAY ON TAPE Now depress the PLA Y button on the cassette unit and the VIC displays: OK SEARCHING FOUND VICWRITER LOADING and briefly SEARCHING again. This will take about five minutes after which the first VICWRITER screen appears. If the load was successful, i.e. the screen appears, press the STOP/EJECT key on the cassette deck, remove the cassette and return it to its case. Now proceed to Section 2.3.3. If an error message appears (e.g. LOAD ERROR) press the STOP/EJECT button and, rewind the tape and carry out this section again. Alternatively, load the copy on the other side of the cassette. Now proceed to Section 2.3.3. 2-4 LEARNING TO USE V1CWRITER 126.96.36.199 Loading from Disk Remove the diskette from its sleeve and insert it into the VIC 1540 disk drive unit. The diskette must be inserted with the label uppermost and the write protect tab on the diskette to the left. Holding the diskette horizontally, gently push it into the narrow slot at the front of the drive. Once it is in place flip down the tab on the drive. The tab is in the centre of the slot. To load VICWRITER type: LOAD"*",8,l and then press the RETURN key. VIC displays: SEARCHING FOR * LOADING This will take about 30 seconds after which the first VICWRITER screen appears. If the load was successful, flip up the tab on the slot at the front of the drive. The diskette will disengage and move slightly forward. Remove the diskette and return it to its protective sleeve. If the message LOAD ERROR appears instead, remove the diskette, turn the disk drive off using the switch at the back of the drive to the right, then turn it on again. Now carry out this section again. If this is unsuccessful try the backup copy of the diskette, if this still proves to be unsuccessful have your drive unit serviced. 2.3.3 OPERATING VICWRITER Once the program is loaded you are ready to begin to create text. The screen displays: VICWRITER md = P 2-5 VICWRITER USER GUIDE on the top line and the cursor will be on the second line. The letters 'md' are short for mode and P is short for Primary. There are three modes and the commands available in each are different. (See Sections 3.2.2, 3.3.1, and 3.4.1.) 2.4 CREATING A PAGE OF TEXT Type S60. This is displayed as S 60 on the second line. The 60 tells VICWRITER that you want a page width of 60 characters. The width of the page can be set at any value between 20 and 80 characters but 60 is a typical width giving average margins on your VIC printer. The default value is 80, i.e. if you do not specify a width it is set at the maximum. Now press RETURN. The screen appears as in Figure 2-2. FIGURE 2-2 SCREEN DISPLAY IN SCAN/EDIT MODE 2-6 LEARNING TO USE VICWRITER The mode is now S which is short for Scan/Edit Mode. The line number 001 is also displayed indicating the line on which you are typing. The white line at the bottom of the screen (the base line) resembles a piece of typewriter paper. The up-arrow (t) indicates where the next character to be typed will appear. The numbers on the lower white line indicate at which position you are typing. To use VICWRITER to create text you must specify K for keyboard, which will then allow you to use the keys like a typewriter. When K is typed the mode indicator changes from S to O, indicating Keyboard Mode. Now type K. A K will appear at the top left of the screen and the mode indicator will change to O signifying Overwrite Sub-mode. (It is called a sub-mode as it is part of the Keyboard Mode.) This allows you to type anything you like on the white line at the bottom of the screen. 2.4.1 TYPING THE TEXT The keys on the VIC keyboard can be used in the same manner as those on a typewriter, using the SHIFT key to obtain upper-case characters. Throughout the following sections the abbreviation VC will be used for the vertical cursor key, and HC for the horizontal cursor key. Simply press the appropriate key once for each occurrence of the abbreviation. (See Appendix A for their uses.) Type in the following text (that which is written in italics), trying to make as few mistakes as possible. If you do mis-spell a word refer to Appendix A which will help you to correct it. Leave two spaces after a full stop and one space after a comma. VC HC HC HC HC Vicwriter is a versatile and easy to use word processing package. It acts just like a typewriter, but with VICWRITER it is far easier to correct mistakes. It comes in both disk and tape form and represents good value for money. Now press the RETURN key to create a new paragraph. 2-7 VICWRITER USER GUIDE HCHCHCHCNo longer will you have to sit and wonder if a word will fit onto a line. VICWRITER automatically puts a word onto the next line, if it will not fit on the current line, to make your work look neat and professional. Press RETURN to end the paragraph. 2.4.2 USING THE FUNCTION KEYS The function keys are the tan keys on the right of the keyboard. VICWRITER enables you to use two of these keys, F5 and F7 to scan the page faster than by using the cursor control keys. This will save you time if you are at the end of a long page of text and want to go back up to the first line of the page. F5 This allows rapid vertical movement DOWN 10 lines. F6 This is obtained by holding the SHIFT key down and pressing F5. This allows rapid vertical movement UP 10 lines. F7 This allows rapid horizontal movement to the RIGHT 10 places. F8 This is obtained by holding the SHIFT key down and pressing F7. This allows rapid horizontal movement to the LEFT 10 places. 2.4.3 CHECKING THE TEXT Move back to the top of your text by holding down the SHIFT key and pressing the F5 key once. It is likely that you have made a few mistakes so locate them now as follows. Move down to the first line of text by pressing the vertical cursor control key. Scan each line in turn by holding down the horizontal cursor control key so that each line moves past your view. When you reach the right margin of the page the cursor will automatically move down to the left margin of the next line. To stop and correct a word, simply take your finger off the HC key. If necessary, move back to the word using the shifted HC key. (See Appendix A for details of cursor control and editing words.) 2-8 LEARNING TO USE VICWRITER Finish your scanning at the space after the full stop following the word 'professional'. The up-arrow will be pointing at the space after the full stop. This is IMPORTANT to the rest of the example. The screen should appear as in Figure 2-3 below: i ' ' 1 > i > 1 - I • - . It I- ■ . : -.:A >.<'•.• i • • ■ i » . i ,. I ... t. "-( ..'}. . , -■> * i i < 1 I • < t • « I ..ii -i 1 i - • ■::. ' <( ( ... .! :;. tin: n )• - »3 1 : = > < it 1 1 fiO „ -! ... f . . FIGURE 2-3 THE COMPLETED TEXT 2.4.4 EDITING THE TEXT Now that you have typed in and checked this text, you can make some changes. By using the F5 and F7 keys on the right of the keyboard you can move about the page more quickly than by using the cursor controls which only move one character or line at a time. 2-9 VICWRITER USER GUIDE 2 AAA Overwriting Text The first alteration is on line 002. Change the word 'Vicwriter' to capital letters. To do this press: SHIFT and F5 VC SHIFT and F7 (4 times) HC (3 times) so that the up-arrow is under the 'i'. Now press the SHIFT/LOCK key. This locks the keyboard in upper-case characters. Re-type the letters in the word and they change into capital letters. This is called overwriting as it replaces the characters with whatever is being entered from the keyboard. Press SHIFT/LOCK again to return to lower-case characters. 188.8.131.52 Inserting Text Next, change the word 'acts' on the third line to the word 'behaves'. The new word is longer than the one it will replace, so you cannot just overwrite it as it will also overwrite the 'ju' in 'just'. Press the VC key and type beha Now press the CTRL key and then type ves The word has been inserted without overwriting the word 'just'. All the text on the line to the right of 'behaves' has moved along three places. Pressing the CTRL key in the Keyboard Mode puts the program into Sub- mode I for Insert. (See Section 184.108.40.206 of the Operating Section.) This creates a space for the character that is typed and all the text to the right of the cursor position will be moved along one place. To get back to Overwrite (O) Sub-mode you must now press the CTRL key again. 2-10 LEARNING TO USE VICWRITER 220.127.116.11 Deleting Text Now delete the words 'neat and' from line 009. Press the VC key 6 times and the HC key 8 times to position the up-arrow in the space between 'and' and 'professional'. Now press the INST/DEL key 9 times. You should see the characters to the left of the cursor disappear as you press the INST/DEL key. The word 'professional' will move to the left to fill in the space. 18.104.22.168 Inserting Lines The text would look better if it had a heading and it is not too late to insert one. Move to line 001 by using the SHIFT and F5 key together. Unfortunately the text starts at line 002 and there is not enough room for a heading. You need two extra lines before the text. If you look at the lower left of the keyboard you will see a key labelled with the COMMODORE logo. In VICWRITER this key is used to insert lines. Hold this key down and press the up-arrow key twice. The text has moved down two lines giving two extra lines on which you may write. Move to line 001 by pressing SHIFT and VC twice. 22.214.171.124 Setting a Tab Position To accent the title it can be underlined after it is typed. It would be more convenient to go beneath the first letter of the heading after it is entered instead of going back to the beginning of the next line. To do this you must set a 'tab'. Press the RUN/STOP key. A blue square appears below the up-arrow (t) on the base line. This indicates that a tab has been set. Now type: The merits of VICWRITER and press RETURN 2-11 VICWRITER USER GUIDE The cursor will be positioned under the T' on the next line. Now press the ' - ' key 23 times to underline the heading and press RETURN. The cursor again moves to the tab position. As you don't want this tab position again, press SHIFT and F7 twice to reach the left margin. Press the RUN /STOP key to reset the tab position to the extreme left. 126.96.36.199 Copying Text Suppose you want the second paragraph twice. To copy text you must be in the Scan/Edit Mode (S), so press the CLR/HOME key and the mode indicator changes to S. Now type: C the screen displays C on the second line Position the cursor at the first line of the paragraph (line 008) by using the vertical cursor key. The line begins with 'No longer ' Press the RETURN key. The screen displays: C008; Now position the cursor at the end of the paragraph by pressing the VC key 3 times; the line (line 011) begins with 'make your ' Press the RETURN key. The screen displays: C008;011; Press the RETURN key again. The screen displays: C008;011;011 The paragraph has been copied so that it appears below the original. A block may be repeated any number of times by simply moving to the new starting location and pressing the RETURN key again. Now press the CLR/HOME key to end copying. 2-12 LEARNING TO USE VICWRITER 188.8.131.52 Ending the Editing Type K to return to the Keyboard Mode (O). Move to the first blank line after the text (line 016) by using the VC key. Type # The # is obtained by pressing SHIFTED 3. This symbol is used to indicate the end of the text to the printer. Now press the CLR/HOME key and then type X. The mode will now be Primary (P) and the screen will be clear of text. The CLR/HOME key returns you to Scan/Edit Mode (S) and the X returns you to Primary Mode (P). 2.5 PRINTING THE TEXT Before commencing this section ensure that you have a VIC printer connected to your computer and that the printer is on. (Consult the printer manual for instructions.) Type: P screen displays P 10 screen displays P 10 Now press the RETURN key twice. The printer will print the text that you have created. If nothing happens clear the command by pressing the CLR/HOME key and then check that your printer is connected. (See Section 1.4). Then type in the command again. The 10 indicates to the printer that you want a 10 character left margin before the text. When printing has stopped press the CLR/HOME key and the command will disappear. 2-13 VICWRITER USER GUIDE 2.6 SAVING THE TEXT VICWRITER allows you to store your page of text on cassette tape or floppy disk, so that it may be retrieved for reviewing, printing or changing at a later date. 2.6.1 SAVING ON CASSETTE Insert a blank cassette into the cassette unit. (See Section 184.108.40.206.) Type: screen displays O 1 and press RETURN screen displays O 1; hippo screen displays O l;hippo Now press the RETURN key. This will save the text, naming it 'hippo' on the cassette. The VIC will display: PRESS RECORD AND PLAY ON TAPE Press down the PLA Yand REC buttons on the cassette unit ensuring that they are both engaged. VIC displays: OK SAVING hippo The characters > > 4 appear at the top right hand corner of the screen. This is a Condition Code (See Appendix B) and indicates that the save was successful. Press the CLR/HOME key to clear the Condition Code. Now proceed to section 2.7. 2-14 LEARNING TO USE V1CWRITER 2.6.2 SAVING ON DISKETTE Before using any diskette for the first time it must be formatted. This simply prepares your diskette so that you can save information on it. For details on how to format a diskette see Section 2.3.1. Insert a blank formatted floppy diskette into the disk drive unit. (See Section 220.127.116.11.) Type: O screen displays O 8 and press RETURN screen displays O 8; hippo and press RETURN screen displays O 8;hippo This will save the text on the diskette naming it 'hippo'. The VIC displays: SAVING The characters > > 4 appear at the top right hand corner of the screen after a few seconds. This is a Condition Code (see Appendix B) and indicates that the save was successful. Press the CLR/HOME key to clear the Condition Code. 2.7 CLEARING THE EDIT BUFFER The EDIT BUFFER is the name given to the area of memory which is used to store your text. Clear this area by pressing the SHIFTED C key and then press the RETURN key. WARNING THIS COMMAND SHOULD ALWAYS BE USED WITH CAUTION AS THE CONTENTS CANNOT BE RESTORED WITHOUT RETYPING UNLESS THEY HAVE BEEN SAVED ON CASSETTE OR DISKETTE FIRST. Now type S60 and press RETURN. Press the VC key several times and you will see that you now have a blank page. This is because you have cleared the Edit Buffer. Type X to return to Primary Mode (P). 2-15 VICWRITER USER GUIDE 2.8 LOADING THE TEXT Now recall the text which you saved. 2.8.1 LOADING TEXT FROM CASSETTE REWIND the cassette before trying to load the file. When the cassette has been rewound, press the STOP/EJECT button. Next type: / screen displays I 1 and press RETURN screen displays I 1; hippo and press RETURN screen displays I l;hippo Make sure that you have entered the name correctly (no capital letters). VIC displays: PRESS PLAY ON TAPE Depress the PLA Y button. VIC displays: OK SEARCHING FOR hippo FOUND hippo LOADING After about 30 seconds the characters > > 4 appear at the right hand corner of the screen (see Appendix B) to indicate that the load is successful. Press the CLR/HOME key to clear the Condition Code. If the Condition Code does not appear after 3 minutes or the screen does not display 'found', stop and rewind the tape and then press the STOP/EJECT button. Press the RUN/STOP key on your VIC and then press CLR/HOME. Now carry out this section again, making sure that you specify the correct name and that the tape is rewound right to the beginning. Now go to Section 2.9. 2-16 LEARNING TO USE VICWRITER 2.8.2 LOADING TEXT FROM DISKETTE Type: / screen displays I 8 and press RETURN screen displays I 8; hippo and press RETURN screen displays I 8;hippo Make sure that you have entered the name correctly (no capital letters). VIC displays: SEARCHING FOR hippo LOADING The characters > > 4 appear at the right hand corner of the screen to indicate that the load is successful. (See Appendix B.) If the Condition Code does not appear, or a different code appears or 'loading' is not displayed after a few minutes press the RUN/STOP key and then the CLR/HOME key to clear the command. Remove the diskette from the drive unit first flipping up the tab on the front of the drive to disengage it. Turn the drive unit off using the switch on the right hand side of the back of the drive unit and then switch it back on again. Put the diskette back into the drive unit making sure you have the label uppermost and the square notch to the left. Press the CLR/HOME key to clear the Condition Code. Now start again from the beginning of this section. 2.9 VIEWING THE TEXT Type: S screen displays S 60 screen displays S 60 Now press the RETURN key and you will be in Scan/Edit Mode. Press the VC key several times and you will see that your page of text is back in the Edit Buffer. (See Section 2.7.) 2-17 VICWRITER USER GUIDE 2.9.1 DELETING LINES OF TEXT Suppose that you do not like the sentence beginning 'No longer ' on line 008. To delete this sentence you will have to delete this line and half of the next line. To delete the first line move down to line 008 using the VC key. Type: D and press RETURN screen displays D 008; Now press RETURN again and the line will be deleted. The screen displays: D 008;008 Press the CLR/HOME key to clear the command. Now delete the remainder of the sentence by pressing the HC key 16 times and then press K to enter Keyboard Mode (O). You need to be in Sub- mode (I) to delete characters so press the CTRL key. Next press the INST/DEL key 16 times so that the V is at the left boundary of the page. To re-align the paragraph you must insert spaces. To do this press the space bar twice. Press the CLR/HOME key to return to Scan/Edit Mode. 2.10 ENDING THE SESSION Type X to return to Primary Mode (P) Pressing SHIFTED E will terminate the program and the VIC will have a screen display as at power up indicating that you are back in VIC BASIC. This command will clear the program and any text held in the Edit Buffer. Therefore it should be used with CAUTION. Now hold down the SHIFT key and press the E key. 2-18 LEARNING TO USE VICWRITER 2.11 CONCLUSION Now that you have completed the Training Section you should have a good idea of how VICWRITER works. More detailed information on the commands available can be found in the Operating Section, together with some commands you have not yet used, such as right and left alignment of text, clearing text to the right of the up-arrow and moving blocks of text. You can now use the program to create your own letters and reports and with a little practise you will soon be an expert at using VICWRITER. NOTES 2-19 OPERATING SECTION THE OPERATING SECTION SECTION THREE THE OPERATING SECTION 3.1 INTRODUCTION TO THE OPERATING SECTION The following is designed as a reference section which can be used in the day-to-day operation of VICWRITER to find answers to questions as they arise. VICWRITER uses 3 modes - PRIMARY (P), SCAN/EDIT (S) and KEYBOARD (K), the latter has two sub-options O or I. The initial letter of each mode is always displayed on the top line of the screen and indicates what commands are available to you at that level. When you have loaded the program (see Section 2.3.2) VICWRITER displays the following: VICWRITER md = P The letters 'md' are the abbreviation for mode. The following three sections explain each mode and the commands that are available within that mode. References are given to the more detailed instructions in Sections 3.2, 3.3, 3.4 and 3.5. 3.1.1 K- KEYBOARD MODE (O or I) Keyboard Mode is indicated by a K on line two of the screen. It allows you to type in text from the keyboard which is then stored by the program in the Edit Buffer. This is an area of memory which is used to retain any text created or recalled from diskette or cassette. The Keyboard Mode has two sub modes, I and O. The status is usually O for OVERWRITE, which means that any characters you type will replace the original characters. Keyboard Mode also allows you to insert characters (see Section 18.104.22.168) using the INSERT (I) sub-mode. 3-1 VICWRITER USER GUIDE In addition to allowing you to type in text, Keyboard Mode has the following options to help you to modify your text: Set a Tab Position VICWRITER will automatically begin each line of text at position 1, i.e. the extreme left margin of the page. This position may be changed using VICWRITER's tab option. See Section 22.214.171.124. Delete a Character Removes one character at a time from the text. See Section 126.96.36.199. Insert a Character Causes all characters to the right of the position indicated by the up-arrow to move one place to the right as each new character is typed. See Section 188.8.131.52. Insert a Line Creates a blank line on which you can then type. See section 184.108.40.206. Clear a Line Deletes all text from the right of the up-arrow to the end of the line. See Section 220.127.116.11. Shift Text to the Right Moves characters to a new position to the right of the original. See Section 18.104.22.168. Shift Text to the Left Moves characters to a new position to the left of the original. See Section 22.214.171.124. Set End of Text Marker # Indicates to the printer when to stop printing. See Section 126.96.36.199. Enter Scan/Edit Mode Exits from the Keyboard Mode so that you can use the commands available in Scan/Edit Mode. See Section 188.8.131.52. 3-2 THE OPERATING SECTION 3.1.2 S- SCAN/EDIT MODE This mode allows you to modify text which already exists in the computer. It includes 6 options which are initiated by typing a letter followed by any parameters necessary to carry out the command. A brief description of each option follows: Delete (D) Removes a line or several consecutive lines of text. See Section 184.108.40.206. Copy (C) Duplicates a block of text. A block may be repeated any number of times, memory space allowing. See Section 220.127.116.11. Move (M) Moves a block of text from one place to another, deleting the original block. See Section 18.104.22.168. View Memory Space (B) Checks that you are not running short of memory space for your text. See Section 22.214.171.124. Enter Keyboard Mode (K) Changes from Scan/Edit to Keyboard Mode. See Section 126.96.36.199. Exit Command (X) Leaves Scan/Edit Mode so you can use the commands available in Primary Mode. See Section 188.8.131.52. 3-3 VICWRITER USER GUIDE 3.1.3 P- PRIMARY MODE This mode allows you to save, recall or print the text after it has been created. You cannot create or modify text in this mode. (See Section 3.4.) The commands within Primary Mode are as follows: Output (O) Stores your page of text on diskette or cassette for future use. See Section 184.108.40.206. Input (I) Recalls previously saved pages of text from diskette or cassette. See Section 220.127.116.11. Print (P) Prints the text currently in the Edit Buffer. See Section 18.104.22.168. Clear (C) Empties the Edit Buffer of all text, thus allowing you to type in a new page. See Section 22.214.171.124. Enter Scan/Edit Mode (S) Exits Primary Mode and enters Scan/Edit Mode so that you can use the commands available in that mode. This command also enables you to set the required width of the page in the range 20 to 80 characters. See Section 126.96.36.199. End Program (E) This command should be used with caution as it terminates the program and clears it from memory. Any text held in the Edit Buffer will be lost unless it has been stored on cassette or diskette before the command is used. See Section 188.8.131.52. 3.1.4 USING THE VICWRITER OPTIONS The sections above contained brief descriptions of all VICWRITER options. The following sections contain detailed instructions for operating each command. They are structured logically so that you can create your text, then edit it and finally print it out and/or save it. 3-4 THE OPERATING SECTION 3.2 CREATING TEXT This section contains all the options available in Keyboard Mode to help you create and edit your text. When text is stored within the computer it is in an area that is called the Edit Buffer. This is the area of memory which is used to store any text created using VICWRITER. Keyboard Mode is indicated by a K on line two of the screen. Before creating text and entering Keyboard Mode you must first specify the page width required in Primary Mode. Press S and then enter a number from 20 to 80 (sixty is common) and press the RETURN key. Then type K. The screen will appear as shown in Figure 3-1. FIGURE 3-1 THE SCREEN IN KEYBOARD MODE 3-5 VICWRITER USER GUIDE You can now type anything you like on the screen using the keys as you would on a typewriter. The O on line one stands for overwrite and this indicates that any character you type will overwrite the character positioned above the up-arrow on the blue line. When you are first typing this is a space or blank. The up-arrow acts as the cursor indicating where the next character you type will appear. Text can only be entered or altered when it is on the line above the blue line. The blue line is known as the base line. The numbers on the lower white line indicate at which position you are typing. Each number represents 10 character positions along the page. The numbers will range from 1 to 8 (for a maximum page width of 80 characters) so that if you specify a page width of 60 characters the rightmost number will be 6. Each block of 10 is subdivided into 10 characters, indicated by a dash, with the fifth character of each block of 10 being a plus sign to indicate the half way point. The cursor control keys at the lower right of the keyboard can be used to move about the page and the two function keys F5 and F7 can be used for faster vertical or horizontal movement. (See Section 2.4.2 for instructions on how to use the function keys and Appendix A for information on the cursor keys.) When you move down a new page using the vertical cursor key, a question mark appears to the left of the white base line. This indicates that the current line is the bottom of the page. If you then move back up the page using the SHIFTED vertical cursor key the question mark will disappear. 3.2.1 TYPING A PAGE OF TEXT To create a page of text using the cursor keys (see Appendix A) move to the place where you want your first words positioned. You can then type the text using the keys as you would on a typewriter. Do not move to the next line when you reach the end of the first line, just continue typing. If the last word on the line is too long to fit on that line VICWRITER will automatically transfer the whole of the word to the next line. When you come to the end of a paragraph, press the RETURN key and VICWRITER will move down to the next line so that you can start your next paragraph. 3-6 THE OPERATING SECTION 3.2.2 COMMANDS AVAILABLE IN KEYBOARD MODE CTRL Select sub-mode STOP Set tab position DEL Delete a character CBM (f) Insert a new line CBM (-) Clear a line CBM > Shift text to the right CBM < Shift text to the left # End of text marker CLR Return to Scan/Edit Mode (S) Note: CBM refers to the COMMODORE logo key on the lower left of the keyboard. 184.108.40.206 Select Sub-Mode When you enter the Keyboard Mode you will be in the O Sub-mode (OVERWRITE). Text typed in this mode will replace the characters on the baseline. Pressing the CTRL key on the left of the keyboard activates the I Sub- mode (INSERT). In this mode, space will be made for characters being typed, i.e. all text to the right of the cursor position will be moved along. If inserting causes the rightmost word to be too long for the current line, VICWRITER will transfer the word to the line below and move all the characters on the next line to the right to compensate. This allows you to insert words, lines or whole paragraphs without having to re-type any of the text. To return to Overwrite (O) Sub-mode press the CTRL key again. The Insert Sub-mode also effects the operation of the DEL key. When using the DEL key in the Insert Sub-mode, VICWRITER will not only close up the words on that line but it will also bring, up words from the following lines thus closing up the spaces in the text completely. 3-7 VICWRITER USER GUIDE 220.127.116.11 Set a Tab Position When you enter the Keyboard Mode (O), the tab is set on the extreme left boundary. By moving the up-arrow position and pressing the RUN/STOP key a new tab position can be set. A blue block will appear on the line below the base line indicating the tab position. Only one tab position can be set at a time. When entering text, exceeding the right boundary or pressing the RETURN key will move the cursor to the tab position. The tab position in effect becomes a temporary new left margin location. To remove the tab, position the line so that the up-arrow is at the extreme left boundary and press the RUN/STOP key. 18.104.22.168 Delete a Character Pressing the INST/DEL key will remove the character to the left of the current cursor position and close up the words on that line to occupy the space of the deleted character. In the Insert Sub-mode (see Section 22.214.171.124), the INST/DEL key will also bring up the words from the following lines and so close up the spaces in the text completely. In the O mode this will not occur. 126.96.36.199 Insert a New Line Pressing the COMMODORE logo key and the I key together will insert a blank line at the base line position. If the keys are held down there is a repeat action, i.e. blank lines are inserted until the keys are released. 188.8.131.52 Clear a Line Pressing the COMMODORE logo key and the left arrow (-) key situated at the top left of the keyboard will delete the text that is on the base line to the right of the up-arrow. 184.108.40.206 Shift Text to the Right Pressing the CBM key and the > key moves the text on the base line to the right of the tab position so that the rightmost character of the text is at the position of the up-arrow. This is done by removing all trailing blanks and inserting leading blanks and is useful for aligning, for example, columns of figures. 3-8 THE OPERATING SECTION NOTE The tab position must be to the left of the cursor position. You must set the tab prior to aligning the text. (See Section 220.127.116.11.) Example: You have a list of figures of varying lengths, all starting in column one as shown in Figure 3-2. FIGURE 3-2 UNALIGNED NUMBERS VICWRITER USER GUIDE You wish to align them so that all the rightmost characters are in line. Set the tab for column one by moving the cursor to the left margin and pressing the RUN /STOP key. Move the cursor 15 positions to the right using the horizontal cursor key. Now move up the screen to the first number you wish to align, using the shifted vertical cursor key. Hold down the COMMODORE logo key and press the > key. The number will move across so that the first digit is in the cursor position. Now move down to the next line by pressing the vertical cursor key. Press the logo key and the > key together and the second number will move across to the cursor position. Repeat this procedure for each number. The screen will appear as shown in Figure 3-3. FIGURE 3-3 NUMBERS AFTER ALIGNMENT 3-10 THE OPERATING SECTION 18.104.22.168 Shift Text to the Left Pressing the Commodore logo key and < key together moves the text on the base line which is before the up-arrow back to the left so that the leftmost character is at the position of the tab marker. All leading blanks are removed and trailing blanks are inserted. This is useful for aligning text to form a table, for example columns of names, and for repositioning rows of text which are already aligned but are in the wrong position. NOTE The tab position must be to the left of the cursor position and, unless you require the text to be moved to the left margin of the page (column one), must be set before aligning the text. 22.214.171.124 End of Text Marker A # entered in column one (i.e. the extreme left margin of the page) of a BLANK LINE is used to indicate the end of the text. The printer will stop when it sees this character. Any text following the # will NOT be printed (see Section 126.96.36.199 for printing instructions) until you press RETURN again. Using this character will help you to set out your pages on the line printer. 188.8.131.52 Return to Scan/Edit Mode (S) Pressing the CLR/HOME key will exit from the Keyboard Mode (O) and return you to the Scan/Edit Mode (S). 3.3 EDITING EXISTING TEXT This section contains detailed information on using the commands available in Scan/Edit Mode to modify existing text, check on the memory space left for storing the text and increase or decrease the paragraph width. Commands typed in this mode are displayed on line two of the screen. To clear a command at any time simply press the CLR/HOME key. 3-11 VICWRITER USER GUIDE If an illegal operation is attempted, Condition Code 3 (see Appendix B) will appear in the top right hand corner. This message can be cleared by pressing the CLR/HOME key. To enter Scan/Edit Mode from Primary Mode type S. You must then specify the width of the page you require. If no page width is specified, i.e. after typing S you press the RETURN key, VICWRITER will automatically set the page at 80 characters wide. If you attempt to set a page width outside the 20 and 80 characters restriction, Condition Code 3 will be displayed at the top right corner of the screen. To clear this you must press the CLR/HOME key and then re-enter the command. To create a page width of 60 characters (which is about standard): Press S screen shows S on line two. Type 60 and then press RETURN. To enter Scan/Edit Mode from Keyboard Mode press the CLR/HOME key. 3.3.1 COMMANDS AVAILABLE IN SCAN/EDIT MODE D Delete lines of text C Copy a block of text M Move a block of text B View memory space K Enter Keyboard Mode (O) X Exit to Primary Mode (P) Two other facilities are included in this section although they are not used solely in Scan/Edit Mode. These enable you to change the width of a paragraph after it has been set up. 184.108.40.206 Delete Lines of Text This command deletes consecutive lines of text between two cursor positions. To DELETE a block of text: Type D screen displays D on line two of the screen. 3-12 THE OPERATING SECTION Position the cursor so that the first line of the text to be deleted is on the base line using the cursor control keys. Press RETURN screen displays D line no; Position the cursor, using the cursor control keys, so that the last line of the text to be deleted is on the base line. Press RETURN screen displays D line no;line no All the text between these lines will then be deleted. NOTE DO NOT enter the line numbers. Positioning the text and pressing RETURN automatically does this. The first line number must be less than the second line number otherwise Condition Code 3 is displayed in the top right hand corner of the screen. To clear the message, press the CLR/HOME key. Repeat the block specification in the correct order. For example, you wish to delete some text beginning at line 7 and ending at line 12: Press D screen displays D on line two Position the cursor on line 7 using the cursor control keys Press RETURN screen displays D 007; Position the cursor on line 12 using the cursor control keys Press RETURN screen displays D 007;012 All the text within and including lines 7 and 12 is deleted. Press the CLR/HOME key to clear the command. 3-13 VICWRITER USER GUIDE 220.127.116.11 Delete a Single Line of Text (D) Type D Position the page so that the line you wish to delete is on the base line. Press the RETURN key twice. This will delete the text which is on the base line. Press the CLR/HOME key to clear the command. 18.104.22.168 Copy a Block of Text (Q This command enables you to duplicate a block of text, inserting it where required. You must be in Scan/Edit Mode (S) to use this command. (See Section 22.214.171.124.) To copy a block of text type: C screen displays C on line two Position the text, using the cursor control keys, so that the top line of the text to be copied is on the base line. Press RETURN screen displays C line no; Position the text, using the cursor control keys, so that the bottom line of the text to be copied is on the base line. Press RETURN screen displays C line no;Iine no; Position the text, using the cursor control keys, at the line to which you want to copy the text (note the copy will be inserted below the line on the base line). Press RETURN screen displays C line no;line no;line no The block of text will then be duplicated. 3-14 THE OPERATING SECTION NOTE DO NOT enter the line numbers. Positioning the line on the base line and pressing RETURN automatically does this. The first line number must be less than the second line number and the third line number must not fall within the block of text being duplicated. For example, if you wish to copy a block starting at line 10 and ending at line 40, you CANNOT insert it after line 15 as this falls within the block of text. Condition Code 3 will appear in the top right hand corner of the. screen if you attempt this. The Condition Code is cleared by pressing the CLR/HOME key. Example: To copy some text which begins at line 9 and ends at line 20, placing it after line 30, type: C screen displays C on line two Position line 9 on the base line using the cursor control keys Press RETURN screen displays C 009; Position line 20 on the base line using the cursor control keys Press RETURN screen displays C 009;020; Position to line 30 using the cursor control keys Press RETURN screen displays C 009;020;030 The text between and including lines 9 and 20 will appear after line 30 as well as in its original position. A block may be repeated any number of times by positioning the cursor to the line after which you wish to copy the text and pressing the RETURN key again. Press the CLR/HOME key to end the command. 3-15 VICWR1TER USER GUIDE 126.96.36.199 Move a Block of Text (M) This command is similar to Copy (see Section 188.8.131.52) but in this case the original block of text is deleted, i.e. M simply moves a block of text from one place to another. To MOVE a block of text type: M screen displays M on line two Position the text, using the cursor control keys, so that the top line of the text to be moved is on the base line. Press RETURN screen displays M line no; Position the text, using the cursor control keys, so that the bottom line of text to be moved is on the base line Press RETURN screen displays M line no;line no; Position the text at the line to which you want to move the block. (Note that the block will be inserted below the text on the base line.) Press RETURN screen displays M line no;line no;line no This will move the text and delete the original. NOTE DO NOT enter the line numbers. Positioning the text and pressing RETURN automatically does this. The first line number must be less than the second line number and the third line number must not fall within the block of text being duplicated. Condition Code 3 is displayed in the top right hand corner of the screen if an illegal copy command is attempted. To clear this press the CLR/HOME key. 3-16 THE OPERATING SECTION Example: To move a block of text which starts at line 30 and ends at line 35, repositioning it after line 9, type: M screen displays M on line two Position to line 30 using the cursor keys Press RETURN screen displays M 030; Position to line 35 using the cursor keys Press RETURN screen displays M 030;035; Position to line 9 using the cursor keys Press RETURN screen displays M 030;035;009 The text between and including lines 30 and 35 will be moved to the position beginning after 9. Lines 30 to 35 will be deleted. Press the CLR/HOME key to end the command. 184.108.40.206 Move a Line of Text To move a single line type M and then position on the line you wish to move and press RETURN twice. Then position to the new location and press RETURN. This will move the line, deleting it at its original location. Press the CLR/HOME key to end the command. 220.127.116.11 View Memory Space (B) Typing B allows you to see how much memory is unused, expressed in bytes. If the amount is low (i.e. below 10 bytes) you should save the page on diskette or cassette or print it out. This will ensure that you do not run out of space for the final lines of the text. Any text typed after memory is full will not be stored in the Edit Buffer. Once you have saved the text you can clear the Edit Buffer (see Section 18.104.22.168) and type the remaining text on a new page. 3-17 VICWRITER USER GUIDE 22.214.171.124 Enter Keyboard Mode (K) By pressing the K key you can pass control to the Keyboard Mode so that the text can be typed into the Edit Buffer from the keyboard thus allowing you to create or amend text. A K will appear on the second line of the screen. See Section 3.2.2 for the commands available in Keyboard Mode. 126.96.36.199 Exit to Primary Mode (X) By pressing the X key you leave the Scan/Edit Mode (S) and return to Primary Mode (P). (See Section 3.4.) This will not affect the contents of the Edit Buffer. 3.3.2 OTHER AVAILABLE COMMANDS Section 3.3 described how to define the width of a page i.e. to specify the maximum number of characters each line could contain. The instructions that follow will enable you to increase or decrease the width, if you decide to change this value after text has been entered. 188.8.131.52 Increasing the Width of the Page To increase the width of the page after text has been typed in, follow the procedure below. Each paragraph you wish to alter should be done separately, otherwise the first sentence of a new paragraph will be placed directly after the last sentence of the preceding paragraph. 1 . Press the CLR/HOME key to return to Scan/Edit Mode unless you are in this mode already. 2. Press X to enter Primary Mode. 3. Re-enter Scan/Edit Mode (see Section 3.3) specifying the new page width. 4. Press K to enter Keyboard Mode. 5. Set the tab (see Section 184.108.40.206) to the position of the leftmost character of the text to be altered. 3-18 THE OPERATING SECTION 6. Position the up-arrow at the first column position, i.e. the extreme left margin of the page on the last line of the text to be altered. 7. Select the Insert Sub-mode (I) by pressing the CTRL key. 8. Press the INST/DEL key and then press the SHIFTed vertical cursor key. 9. Repeat step (8) for each line, up to the first line to be altered. When you view the page, you will see that the text has expanded to fill the new longer lines. To change subsequent paragraphs, using the same page width, carry out steps (5) to (9). 220.127.116.11 Decreasing the Width of the Page To decrease the width of the page after text has been typed in, follow the procedure below. Each paragraph you wish to alter should be done separately, otherwise the first sentence of a new paragraph will be placed directly after the last sentence of the preceding paragraph. 1. Set the tab (see Section 18.104.22.168) so that it aligns with the leftmost character of the text to be altered. 2. Position the cursor at the first line of the text to be altered. 3. Select the Insert Sub-mode (I) by pressing the CTRL key. Before proceeding further, work out how far across the page you will need to push the lines to achieve the smaller page width required. For example, if you specified a page width of 50 originally and you now find you need a page 30 characters wide, you must move each line across 20 places using the space bar. Similarly if your page was 80 characters wide and you want to reduce it to 40 you must move each line across 40 characters using the space bar. The numbers below the blue line at the bottom of the screen may help you. 4. Use the SPACE bar to push the text as far to the right as is required to give you the new page width. 5. Press RETURN and repeat step (4) for each line. 3-19 VICWRITER USER GUIDE 6. Select Overwrite Sub-mode (O) by pressing the CTRL key. 7. Reposition the up-arrow at the first character of the first line you wish to alter. Using the INST/DEL key move the characters to the extreme left margin (unless you require the line indented as for example at the beginning of a paragraph). Move to the first character of the next line by using the cursor keys and repeat step (7) for each subsequent line. 8. Return to Primary Mode (P) by pressing the CLR/HOME key and then pressing X. Re-enter Scan/Edit Mode (S) (see Section 3.3 ) specifying the new shorter line length . When you view the text, you will find that the page width has decreased. 3.4 PRIMARY MODE (P) Commands typed in this mode are displayed on the second line of the screen. After the required key is pressed, the parameter (if applicable) is entered and the RETURN key is pressed to initiate the command. Before the RETURN key has been pressed, the INST/DEL key can be used to erase an incorrect parameter so that it can be corrected. The command can be cleared by pressing the CLR/HOME key. If an illegal parameter is entered, Condition Code 3 (see Appendix B) is displayed at the top right hand corner of the screen. When the code appears it is necessary to clear the command by pressing the CLR/HOME key and then re-entering it. This mode is entered when the program is first loaded, or from the Scan/Edit Mode (S) when the X key is pressed. 3-20 THE OPERATING SECTION 3.4.1 COMMANDS AVAILABLE IN PRIMARY MODE Output text to diskette or cassette 1 Input text from diskette or cassette P Print text C Cancel contents of Edit Buffer S Enter Scan/Edit Mode (S) E End program 22.214.171.124 Output Text to Diskette or Cassette (O) Format: O device no; filename This command saves text that is in the Edit Buffer, storing it on diskette or cassette. The device number can be either: a) 1 (indicating output to cassette) b) 8 (indicating output to diskette) The filename can be up to 11 characters long and should be unique to the diskette or cassette. For example to save some text called '1 LETTER' on cassette: Press O the screen shows O Press 1 and RETURN the screen shows O 1; Type 1LETTER Press RETURN the screen shows O 1;1LETTER Your VIC will then ask: PRESS RECORD AND PLAY ON TAPE If at this point you decide that you don't want to save the letter, you must press the RUN/STOP key (Condition Code 4 will then appear) and then the CLR/HOME key. If you press the REC and PLA Y buttons on the cassette unit, your VIC displays: OK SAVING 1LETTER 3-21 VICWRITER USER GUIDE This may take several minutes, depending on the amount of text to be saved. NOTE If you attempt to save text on diskette using a filename you have already used once, Condition Code 4 will appear almost immediately and the red light on the front of the drive unit will be flashing but YOUR TEXT WILL NOT BE SAVED. Therefore, beware if saving appears to be very quick. If this does occur remove the diskette from the drive unit, turn the disk drive off using the switch on the right at the back and then turn it on again. Insert the diskette into the drive unit. Press the CLR/HOME key and re-enter the command using a different file name. When saving has finished, Condition Code 4 (see Appendix B) will appear at the top right hand corner of the screen. This indicates that the save was successful. Press the CLR/HOME key to clear the Condition Code. If a Condition Code other than 4 is displayed, indicating that the save was NOT successful, clear the code by pressing the CLR/HOME key and try to save the text again. Be careful to keep a record of your filenames for future reference. You should always make two copies of any text just in case one copy becomes damaged or lost. If you are saving on diskette make sure that the diskette is formatted first. See Section 3.5.1 for instructions on diskette formatting. 3-22 THE OPERATING SECTION 126.96.36.199 Input Text from Diskette or Cassette (I) Format: I device no;filename This command loads a text file from diskette or cassette into the Edit Buffer. Existing text stored in the Edit Buffer will be overwritten. The device number can either be: a) 1 (indicating input from cassette) b) 8 (indicating input from diskette) For example to load some text called '1LETTER' from diskette: Press / the screen shows I Press 8 RETURN the screen shows I 8; Type 1LETTER Press RETURN the screen shows I 8; 1 LETTER VIC displays: SEARCHING FOR 1LETTER LOADING If the operation is successful Condition Code 4 will be displayed at the top right hand corner of the screen. If any other Condition Code appears, refer to Appendix B for the meaning of the code and the action to be taken. Press the CLR/HOME key to clear the Condition Code. Note that if the following was entered: I 8;1* the first file on the diskette whose name began with T would be loaded. I 8; 1 LET* would load the first file beginning with ' 1 LET' and so on. For this reason it is advantageous to begin each of your text files on diskette with a different number. For example: 1 LETTER, 2LETTER, 3LETTER and so on. The name of the required file can be loaded by just entering the first character. For example to load 3LETTER type: I 8;3* 3-23 VICWRITER USER GUIDE 188.8.131.52 Print Text Format: P margin width This command enables you to print out the current text in the Edit Buffer. The margin width required plus the longest line width in the Edit Buffer must not exceed 80 characters. For example, if you specify your page width (see Section 184.108.40.206) as 70 characters and your margin as 15 characters, the total is greater than 80 characters and Condition Code 3 will be displayed (see Appendix B). To clear this, press the CLR/HOME key and re-enter the command with a margin which gives a total of less than 80 characters, for example 10. If no margin is specified, i.e. you type P and then press the RETURN key twice, the printer will print your text, starting at column one of the paper. To print, first ensure the red POWER light on the printer is on. To print with a margin of 10: Press P screen shows P Enter 10 screen shows P 10 Press RETURN twice Printing commences with each line indented by 10 characters. To STOP printing press the RUN/STOP key. To recommence printing press the RETURN key. If your text is separated by lines containing a # in column one (see Section 220.127.116.11) the printer stops when it encounters this character. This enables you to align the paper at the top of a new page if you wish. To continue with the next block of text press RETURN again. To terminate the command press the CLR/HOME key. 18.104.22.168 Clear the Edit Buffer Format: SHIFT C WARNING THIS COMMAND SHOULD BE USED WITH EXTREME CAUTION. IT CLEARS THE CONTENTS OF THE EDIT BUFFER, i.e. DESTROYS WHAT IS THERE. STORE THE CONTENTS FIRST. (SEE SECTION 22.214.171.124.) 3-24 THE OPERATING SECTION Clear allows you to start a new page of text. Type a SHIFTed C and press the RETURN key to initiate the command. 126.96.36.199 Enter Scan/Edit Mode (S) Format: S page width (in range 20 to 80) This command passes control to the Scan/Edit commands (see Section 3.3) so that text may be created or manipulated. 188.8.131.52 End the Program Format: SHIFT E WARNING THIS COMMAND SHOULD BE USED WITH EXTREME CAUTION. IT TERMINATES THE PROGRAM AND CLEARS IT FROM THE MEMORY. ANY TEXT HELD IN THE EDIT BUFFER WDLL BE LOST. Before using this command save any text that may be required again (see Section 184.108.40.206). When End is executed VIC will return you to the screen as at power up. 3.5 DISKETTE HANDLING COMMANDS The following two sections contain instructions for formatting your diskettes and keeping diskettes up-to-date by deleting (scratching) files you no longer need. 3.5.1 DISKETTE FORMATTING Whenever a new diskette is to be used it must first be formatted. This prepares the diskette so that it is ready to accept information. Format: OPEN15,8,15:PRINT#15,"N0:name,id":CLOSE15 3-25 VICWRITER USER GUIDE The 'name' can be up to 16 characters long. For example DISK1, MEMOS, REPORTS. The 'id' is a 2 character identifier which should be unique for each new diskette you use. You could use identifiers in ascending order, for exam- ple, 01, 02 up to 99. Letters can also be used, for example, AA, AB, Al, 2X etc. To format a diskette with the name EXAMPLE and the identifier 01 type: OPEN15,8,15:PRINT#15,"N0:EXAMPLE,01" and press the RETURN key. The red light at the front of the drive unit will come on and the drive unit will whir for several seconds. VIC will display the READY message. If the red light does not come on check that the power is switched on (the green light at the front of the drive unit will be on) and that the disk drive is attached to the back of the VIC 20. Press the RUN/STOP key and re- type the command shown above. After the READY message has appeared type: CLOSE 15 and press the RETURN key. The red light on the drive unit will come on for about 30 seconds after which VIC will display the READY message. Your diskette is now ready to receive text created by VICWRITER. IMPORTANT Formatting can only be done outside the VICWRITER program. Make sure you have a for- matted diskette ready whenever you use VICWRITER because if you realise you need a diskette when you are using VICWRITER, exiting the program will cause you to lose the current page of text you have in memory. 3-26 THE OPERATING SECTION 3.5.2 SCRATCHING DISK FILES Scratching simply means removing a file from the diskette. This allows you to delete any pages that you no longer require. Format: OPEN15,8,15: PRINT #15,"S0:filename":CLOSE15 The filename must correspond to a file of text on the diskette. For example to delete a file called LETTER 15 type: OPEN15,8 > 15:PRINT#15,"S0:LETTER15" and press the RETURN key. The red light at the front of the drive unit will come on. If the red light does not come on check that the drive unit is switched on (the green light should be on) and that it is connected to the back of your VIC 20. Press the RUN/STOP key and then re-type the command. When scratching has finished VIC will display the READY message. Now type: CLOSE15 and press RETURN IMPORTANT Scratching files can only be done outside the VICWRITER program. 3-27 APPENDICES KEYBOARD NOTES APPENDIX A KEYBOARD NOTES CONTROLLING THE CURSOR The "cursor" is the flashing block below the READY which appears on the screen when you turn on the computer. The position of the cursor determines where the characters will appear on the screen when you type them. There are two keys on the keyboard of your VIC computer which control the principal movement of the cursor on the screen. These are the keys marked CRSR, one marked with horizontal (left and right) arrows and one with vertical (up and down) arrows. Depressing the key with the horizontal arrow will move the cursor one space to the right. Pressing this key whilst holding down the SHIFT key will move the cursor back to the left. Similarly, the vertical CRSR key will move the cursor down and with the SHIFT key depressed will move it up. If you want the cursor to return directly to the upper left corner of the screen which is called the HOME position, simply press the key marked CLR/HOME. Practice moving the cursor around the screen using these keys. NOTE Within VICWRITER the cursor appears as an up- arrow (t) on the base line in Keyboard Mode and Scan/Edit Mode. Note that the page moves rather than the cursor, i.e. if you press the horizontal cursor key the page will move to the left. A-l VICWRITER USER GUIDE CORRECTING TYPING MISTAKES Before starting to use your VIC program, you should know how to correct typing errors so that you need not worry if you press the wrong key from time to time. Correcting errors is simple on the VIC 20 computer. Try it. Type the following anywhere on the screen: Where errorrs are conserned the ky to scksess is try. To correct "errorrs", place the cursor over the "s". Now press the INST/DEL key once. You will now have: errors The DELETE function takes the letter under the cursor and "pulls" it, along with all the following text, one position to the left. This action covers whatever was originally in the position to the left of the cursor. Next place the cursor over the "s" in "conserned" and press the c key. Notice how the computer simply overwrites whatever is under the cursor. Now place the cursor over the "y" in "ky". Hold down the SHIFT key and press the INST/DEL key once. Notice how the INSERT function "pushes" all of the text to the right of the cursor one position, leaving a blank space under the cursor where you can now type the missing "e". Try out these techniques yourself by correcting "scksess". Before proceeding with any other activity on the screen press RETURN. The computer will display the message: ?syntax error ready You may now load VICWRITER as explained in Section 2.3.2. A-2 CONDITION CODES APPENDIX B CONDITION CODES The Condition Codes are displayed in the top right hand corner of the screen in the form > > 3. All except Code 4 are used to highlight error conditions. If a Condition Code is displayed, check its meaning and then clear the code by pressing the CLR/HOME key. This will then allow you to enter the command again if an error occurred or enter another command if the last one was successful. CODE : 1 MEANING The space allocated to the Edit Buffer has been exceeded. ACTION Reset with the CLR/HOME key. To continue, save text entered so far and clear the Edit Buffer (see Section 220.127.116.11). Then type in the rest of the text on a new page. CODE : 3 MEANING The last parameter entered was illegal. ACTION Reset with the CLR/HOME key. Check the permissable parameter values under the appropriate command description in the Operating Section. CODE : 4 MEANING This is not an error situation. The last command invoked has ended successfully. ACTION Reset with the CLR/HOME key. B-l VICWRITER USER GUIDE CODE : 5 MEANING An error occurred whilst a file was being loaded. ACTION Reset with the CLR/HOME key. If you are using a diskette, make sure that the diskette has been formatted and that the disk drive unit is attached to the VIC. Make sure that you specify the correct file name. If you are using cassette, rewind the cassette and try loading again. CODE : 6 MEANING An attempt was made to load an invalid file. ACTION Reset with the CLR/HOME key. Ensure that the correct file name is specified. B-2 GLOSSARY GLOSSARY BASE LINE The line above the dark blue line at the bottom of the screen. All characters that are typed in Keyboard Mode will appear here. CHARACTER Each individual symbol which appears on the screen, whether it is a letter, a number, punctuation mark, or space, i.e. everything that is created by pressing a key. CONDITION CODE A number used to indicate the status of an operation, mainly used to indicate error situations. CURSOR The flashing square which appears on the screen when VIC is switched on. Any character typed will appear in the position indicated by the cursor. In VICWRITER the cursor is represented by the up-arrow (1) on the blue line near the bottom of the screen. DEVICE NUMBER A number used to distinguish input or output to cassette from input or output to diskette. A 1 denotes input/output to cassette, an 8 denotes input/output to diskette. EDIT BUFFER The area of VIC's memory used to store any text created using VICWRITER, or loaded into the program from diskette or cassette. FILE The space allocated on the diskette or casstte for storing your page of text. FORMATTING Before using any new diskette it must be prepared or formatted. Once formatted it can be used to save your text files. FUNCTION KEY One of 4 tan keys situated on the right side of the keyboard. VICWRITER uses F5 and F7 for fast scanning vertically and horizontally respectively. G-i VICWRITER USER GUIDE INSERT SUB-MODE (I) A Sub-mode (I) which is used for inserting characters at the cursor position. All text to the right of the cursor position is moved to the right to make space for the inserted character. KEYBOARD MODE (O) This mode (O) allows the user to type text into the Edit Buffer from the keyboard. It is entered from the Scan/Edit Mode (S). MODE Displayed on the top line of the screen as md = P. Indicates commands available at that level. The three modes are P, S and K. OVERWRITE SUB-MODE (O) In this Sub-mode (O) typing over text will replace the characters above the up-arrow with whatever is being entered from the keyboard. PARAMETER A variable specified by the user to produce text in the way required. For example, the margin required for printing. PRIMARY MODE (P) The highest level in the program. This mode is displayed when you first enter the program. Commands entered in this mode are displayed on line 2 of the screen. After the required key is pressed, the parameter (if any) is entered and the RETURN key pressed to initiate the command. SCAN/EDIT MODE (S) This mode is entered from Primary Mode (P). It allows the user to display and modify text in the Edit Buffer. SCRATCHING Deleting a file containing a page of text on diskette. SUB-MODE The lowest level mode available, part of the Keyboard Mode. Overwrite and Insert are Sub-modes and are obtained by pressing the CTRL key. I or O (Insert or Overwrite) appears on the top line of the screen. TEXT Anything which you type onto a page in Keyboard Mode is text. All text is stored in the Edit Buffer. G-2 INDEX INDEX Page Alignment of text to the left 3-11 to the right 3-8 Backing up information 1-7 B Command 3-17 Cancelling Commands 3-11 ,3-20 Cassette care of 1-6 loading from 1-10,2-4,2-16,3-23 Clearing the Edit Buffer 2-15,3-24 line to right of cursor 3-8 Condition Codes B-l Copy command 2-12,3-14 Creating text 2-6,3-5 Cursor control keys 2-7 Decreasing page width 3-19 Deleting characters 3-8 lines 2-18,3-12 Diskette care of 1-5 formatting 2-2,3-25 loading from 1-11,2-5,2-17,3-23 Edit Buffer clearing 2-15,3-24 use of 2-15,3-5 Editing text 2-9,3-11 End of program command 2-18,3-25 End of text marker 2-13,3-11 Exit to Primary Mode 2-13,3-18 Exit to Scan/Edit Mode 2-13,3-11 i-i VICWRITER USER GUIDE Filenames 3-21 ,3-22 Formatting a diskette. 2-2,3-25 Function keys i 2-8 Hardware connecting 1-7 requirements 1-3 turning on 1-8 Increasing page width 3-18 Inserting characters 2-10,3-7 lines 2-11,3-8 Insert Sub-mode 2-10,3-7 Keyboard Mode 2-7,3-1,3-5 Left alignment of text 3-11 Loading VICWRITER 1-10,2-4 text from cassette 2-16,3-23 text from diskette 2-17,3-23 Margin setting 2-6,2-13,3-12,3-24,3-25 Memory expansion cartridge 1-4,2-1 Mode Keyboard (K) 2-7,3-1,3-5 Primary (P) 2-5,3-4,3-20 Scan/Edit (S) 2-6,3-3,3-11 Moving blocks of text 3-16 Overwrite Sub-mode 2-7,2-10,3-1 Page width,setting 2-6,3-12,3-25 Primary Mode 2-5,3-4,3-20 Printing text 2-13,3-24 Question mark 3-6 1-2 INDEX Rapid page scanning 2-8 Saving text on cassette 2-14,3-21 on diskette 2-15,3-21 Scan/Edit Mode 2-6,3-3,3-11 Scratching diskette files 3-27 Shift text to the left 3-11 to the right -3-8 Tab position 2-11,3-8 Turning on hardware 1-8 1-3 VICWRITER VICWRITER is a word-processing program which easily enables you to create, store, and modify text on your VIC 20 colour computer. VICWRITER has many uses both at home and in business; some typical applications include: Personal Letters Business Letters Reports Memoranda Mailing list labels By using VICWRITER you can relieve the boredom of typing identical texttime and time again, whilst retaining the essential features of a typewriter. As you type the characters appear on a line near the bottom of the VIC screen. When the screen width is full, the line moves to the left, just as the paper does in a manual typewriter. You can specify the width of margin you require foryour page by using one single command, allowing a page width of as little as 20 characters per line or as many as 80. VICWRITER also allows you to check that you are not running short of memory ^.Qcic^cice to store your text so that, if need be, you can save it before the space runs out. Text can be stored on cassette tape or on diskette so that you can recall it later and make amendments, or print it out using the VIC Printer. This package also includes a comprehensive guide to using VICWRITER, which contains a number of useful applications both at home and in business. Two copies of the program are included, providing a back-up if required. NOTE: VICWRITER requires the use of a VIC 1 540 Single Drive Floppy Disk Unit for the diskette-based package or a VIC 1 530 Cassette Unit for the cassette- ccss^ cackcge. Both versions require the use of either an 8K or! 6K RAM Memory Expansion Cartridge, and a VIC Printer. These items are available from Commodore dealers. Landsoft Limited 1 Commodore Electronics Limited All rights reserved. No part of this program or accompanying instruction manual may be duplicated, copied, transmitted or reproduced in any form by any means without the prior written permission of Commodore Home Computer P^sian__ ::'.".'::cre business machines, inc. 1200 Wilson Drive, West Chester, PA 19380 3370 Pharmacy Ave., Agincourt, Ontario, Canada M1W 2K4 Made in U.S.A.